1 VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi;

2 Viet Nam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change.



The process of domestic wastewater treatment has created a large amount of greenhouse gases (GHG). However, the measure for evaluating domestic wastewater treatment is only the treatment efficiency. Meanwhile, the factors to assess the possibility of generating GHG emissions have not been concerned. The Nhue–Day River basin plays an important role on the socio–economic development; therefore, one of the problem needs to be filled with concern is the level of GHG emissions from waste sources, including domestic wastewater. In order to contribute to forecast and evaluate the domestic wastewater impacts on the generation of GHG emissions, the study has been implemented. The main methods taken as synthesis, analysis, and inheritance of research documents and calculations are based upon the guidance of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2006, chapter 5,6 – Wastewater disposal and treatment and other Vietnamese studies on climate change. The study has calculated GHG emissions from wastewater in the Nhue–Day River basin through the use of septic toilets, other toilets and centralized treatment plant by aerobic technologies for the current status (2019) and the scenario in 2030. Thereby, it shows that the CH4 gas is mainly generated from anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater with total CH4 emissions currently at 52,850,201.55 Gg CH4/year (processed 49,742,761.24 Gg CH4/year accounting for 94.12%); and for the scenario up to 2030 is 212,764,669.79 Gg CH4/year (processed 212,700,144.64 Gg CH4/year at 99.97%).


Cite this paper

Tu, C.A.; Anh, N.T.K.; Quy, L.V.; Quynh, P.T. Calculation of methane gas emissions (CH4) from domestic waste water in Nhue–Day River basin. VN J. Hydrometeorol. 2021, 7, 9-19. 


1. Ho, M.D.; Nguyen, T.T.H. Assessment on the current status of greenhouse gas emissions, environmental classification and proposal of solutions to develop green industries in Long An province. J. Sci. Technol. 2017, 1–20.

2. World Bank, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), German Development Bank (KfW). Assessment of Urban Wastewater Management in Vietnam, 2013.

3. Thang, N.T. Water quality assessment and loading capability of Nhue–Day River in the context of climate change and socio–economic development, National University of Hanoi, 2014.

4. Hung, N.Q. Environmental pollution in the Nhue–Day River basin and completion of penalty policy in the environmental field. J. Legislative Stud. 2015, 286, 1–6.

5. Tu, C.A. Proposal on scientific basis and river water quality zoning according to usage purposes. J. Environ. 2018, 37–43.

6. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. Technical Report: Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of Viet Nam, Hanoi, 2015.

7. General Statistics Office. Preliminary census results in 2019.

8. JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency). Guidance Document on City–Level Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Project on Support the Planning and Implementation of NAMAs in a MRV Manner, 2017.

9. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Guidelines for Volume 5, Chapter 6 – Waste Water Disposal and Treatment, 2016.

10. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Volume 5: Waste, 2015.

11. Nguyen, L.H.; Kensuke, F. Calculation of greenhouse gas from domestic wastewater. Sustainable Science Integrated Research Institute–School of Urban Engineering and University of Tokyo, Japan. Faculty of Environmental Engineering–University of Civil Engineering, 2018.

12. Government. Decision 681/QD–TTg on the Planning of drainage and wastewater treatment systems for residential and industrial areas in the Nhue–Day River basin to 2030, 2013.

13. Gupta, D.; Singh, S.K. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Case Study of Noida. J. Water Sustainability 2012, 2, 131–139.

14. Campos, J.L.; Valenzuela–Heredia, D.; Pedrouso, A.; Val del Río, A.; Belmonte, M.; Mosquera–Corral, A. Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Wastewater Treatment Plants: Minimization, Treatment, and Prevention. J. Chem. 2016, 1–12.