1Nong Lam University of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
2College of Sciences, Hue University, Vietnam
3Viet Nam Meteorological and Hydrometeorological Administration, Ha Noi, Vietnam



Cau Hai lagoon, located to the south of Phu Loc District, Thua Thien Hue province and the part of the Tam Giang - Cau Hai lagoon system is one of the largest lagoon systems in Southeast Asia. Cau Hai lagoon is a waterbody receiving overflowing water from the inland rivers and streams, so it is possible to accumulate organochlorine pesticides (chlorinated organic groups) in sediments. This study used Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) method to investigate the content of some organochlorine pesticides in sediment samples. In general, the results showed the presence of some organochlorine pesticides in the sample such as α-HCH, β-HCH, δ-HCH, Heptachlor, Aldrin, Heptachlor epoxide and Endosulfan. Some toxic chemicals had concentration less than the limit of detection of the analytical method. The results of this research showed the scientific and practical significance, which is an important database for concentration of organochlorine pesticides in sediment of Cau Hai lagoon, Thua Thien Hue province, Central Vietnam.


Cite this paper

Doan Thi Quynh Tram, Tran Chau Phong Nha, Hua Thi Thuy Linh, Bach Quang Dung, Pham Thi Le Thuy, Nguyen Minh Ky (2020), Investigation of  Organochlorine  pesticides in sediment in Cau Hai lagoon, Central Vietnam. Vietnam Journal of Hydrometeorology, 4, 12-22



1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 2007. Toxicological profile for heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of health and human services, Public Health Service.

2. Ahmed, G., Anawar, H.M., Takuwa, D.T., Chibua, I.T., Singh, G.S., Sichilongo, K., 2015. Environmental assessment of fate, transport and persistent behavior of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and hexachlorocyclohexanes in land and water ecosystems. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 12: 2741-2756.

3. Bach, Q.D., Kim, S.J., Choi, S.C., Oh, Y.S., 2005. Enhancing the intrinsic bioremediation of PAH-contaminated anoxic estuarine sediments with biostimulating agents. Journal of Microbiology, 43 (4): 319-324.

4. Bai, J., Lu, Q., Zhao, Q., Wang, J., Gao, Z., Zhang, G., 2015. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in wetland soils under different land uses along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in a Chinese estuary. Scientific Reports, 5: 17624.

5. Bian, C., Jiang, W., Song, D., 2010. Terrigenous transportation to the Okinawa Trough and the influence of typhoons on suspended sediment concentration. Continental Shelf Research, 30: 1189-1199.

6. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, 2002. Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic life. Winnipeg: Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment.

7. Carriger, J.F., Hoang, T.C.., Rand, G.M., Gardinali, P.R., Castro, J., 2011. Acute Toxicity and Effects Analysis of Endosulfan Sulfate to Freshwater Fish Species. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60: 281-289.

8. Cheng, W.W., Anping, Z., Weiping, L., 2013. Risks from sediments contaminated with organochlorine pesticides in Hangzhou, China. Chemosphere, 90 (9): 2341-2346.

9. Connell, D.W., 1994. The octanol-water partition coefficient. In: Handbook of   Ecotoxicology, Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 2: 311-320.

10. Dang, T.N.Y., Nguyen, T.H., Pham, K.L., Harada, H., Brion, N., Duong, V.H., Nguyen, V.H., Venterink, H.O., 2019. Effects of nutrient supply and nutrient ratio on diversity-productivity relationships of phytoplankton in the Cau Hai lagoon, Vietnam. Ecology and Evolution, 9 (10): 5950-5962.

11. Darko, G., Akoto, O., Oppong, C., 2008. Persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in fish, sediment organochlorine pesticide residues in fish, sediment and water from Lake Bosomtwi, Ghana. Chemosohere, 72 (1): 21-24.

12. De Roma, A., Rossini, C., Riverso, C., Galiero, G., Esposito M., 2017. Endosulfan poisoning in canids and felids in the Calabria region of southern Italy. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 29 (1): 122-125.

13. Dirbaba, N.B., Li, S., Wu, H., Yan, X., Wang, J., 2018. Organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in surficial sediments of the Awash River Basin. Ethiopia. PLoS ONE, 13 (10): e0205026.

14. Doan, T.Q.T., Hoang, T.L., Nguyen, M.K., Tran, T.A.M., 2018. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides in some fish species in Cau Hai lagoon, Thua Thien Hue province. Joural of Science Technology and Food, 17 (1): 90-99.

15. Duong, V.H., Tran, T.D., Tran, N.T., Duong, T.C., 2018. Investigation and ecological risk assessment of Pb, As and Hg in sediment of Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon, Thua Thien Hue province. Vietnam Journal of Science and Technology,  56 (2C): 72-79.

16. Eriksson, E.L., Persson, M.H., 2014. Sediment tranSport and coaStal evolution at Thuan An inlet, Vietnam. Journal of Water Management and Research, 70: 169-179.

17. Farshid, K., 2015.  Assessment of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Water, Sediments and Fish from Lake Tashk, Iran. Achievements in the Life Sciences, 9 (2): 107-111.

18. Frignani, M., Bellucci, L.G., Albertazzi, S., Piazza, R., Moret I., Nguyen H.C., Zangrando R., 2004. Polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of the Tam Giang-Cau Hai Lagoon (Central Vietnam) - First results. Proceedings of international symposium on halogenated environmental organic pollutants and POPs, Germany, 66: 3608-3614.

19. Frignani, M., Piazza, R., Bellucci, L.G., Nguyen, H.C., Zangrando, R., Albertazzi, S., Moret, I., Romano, S., Gambaro, A., 2007. Polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of the Tam Giang-CauHai Lagoon, Central Vietnam. Chemosphere, 67: 1786-1793.

20. Giuliani, S.,  Romano, S.,, Turetta, C.,  Nguyen, H.C., Bellucci, L.G.,  Capodaglio, G., Mugnai, C.,  Dang, H.N., Frignani, M., 2011. Soils and sediments of the Thua Thien-Hue Province (central Vietnam): recognizing trace element sources and the likely influence of natural events. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 13: 1383-1392.

21. IMOLA, 2010. Project report of Integrated management of lagoon activities. Hue: IMOLA.

22. Ize-Iyamu, O.K., Asia, I.O., Egwakhide, P.A., 2007. Concentrations of residues from organochlorine pesticide in water and fish from some rivers in Edo State Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 2: 237-241.

23. Jayaraj, R., Megha, P., Sreedev, P., 2016. Organochlorine pesticides, their toxic effects on living organisms and their fate in the environment. Interdisciplinary toxicology, 9 (3-4): 90-100.

24. Jinglan, F., Mengxiao, Z., Qun, L., Jianhui, S., Jiajia, G., 2011. Residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in upper reach of the Huaihe River, East China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 74 (8): 2252-2259.

25. Hongxuan, L., Weiguo, L., 2016. Distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in soil, water, and sediment from the Bahe River, China. Environmental Forensics, 17 (1): 80-86.

26. Kampire, E., Rubidge, G., 2017. Characterization of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface sediments of the North End Lake, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Water, 43: 646–654.

27. Li, W., Yang, H., Gao, Q., Pan, H., Yang, H., 2012. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in water and suspended particulate matter from Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 89: 811-815.

28. Miller, J.C., Miller, J.N., 1988. Statistics for Analytical Chemistry, Ellis Horwood Limited.

29. Nghiem, T.L, Stive, M.J.F., Wang, Z.B., Verhagen, H.J., Vu, T.T.T., 2008. Hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of a seasonally forced tidal inlet system. Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Thuy loi University, 23: 114-124.

30. Nguyen, H.L., Nguyen, M.K., 2012. Climate change awareness and practice of fishing communities in Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon in Thua Thien Hue province. Journal of Science and Technology, University of Danang, 53 (4): 33- 40.

31. Nguyen, N.T.T., de Vries, M.B., 2009. Predicting trends in water quality in the coastal zone of TT-Hue, Vietnam - An assessment of impacts of rice culture and aquaculture. Asian and Pacific Coasts, 2: 148-154.

32. Nguyen, X.K., 2005. Assess the residues of chlorine mechanical pesticides in some biological objects and environment in Thua Thien Hue lagoon. Hanoi: PhD thesis in Chemistry, Vietnam National University.

33. Nhan, D.D., Am, N.M., Carvalho, F.P., Villeneuve, J.-P., Cattini, C., 1999. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs along the coast of North Vietnam. Science of the Total Environment, 238: 363-371.

34. Nhan, D.D., Carvalho, F.P., Am, N.M., Tuan, Q.T., Yen, N.T.H., Villeneuve, J.P., Cattini, C., 2001. Chlorinated pesticides and PCBs in sediments and mollusks from fresh-water canals in the Hanoi region. Environmetal Pollution, 112: 311-320.

35. Pham, L., 2006. Atomic spectrum analysis method. Hanoi: National University Press.

36. Pham, M.H., Pham, H.V., Nguyen, D.G.C, 2010. Simultaneous analysis of residues of organochlorine pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in leaf squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana) at some locations in North and Central. Journal of Science and Technology, 48 (2A): 46-52.

37. Pham, M.H., Zita, S., Tu, B.M., Pham, H.V., Fabrice, G.R., 2011. Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of North Viet Nam: Case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes. Environmental Polluttion, 159: 3344-3350.

38. Sun, J.H., Wang, G.L., Zhang, G., Li, J., Chai, Y., 2008. Correlation analysis and risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments from the Yellow River. Acta Sci. Circumst., 28 (2): 342-348.

39. Thanh, T.D., Saito, Y., Huy, V.D., Nguyen, V.L., Ta, T.K.O., Tateishi, M., 2004. Regimes of human and climate changes in Vietnam. Regional Environmental Change, 4: 49-62.

40. Thua Thien Hue Provincial People’s Committee, 2008. Thua Thien Hue Province Tourism and Lagoon Development Program till 2012. Thua Thien Hue.

41. Toan, V.D., 2015. Residue of select organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediment from Vietnam’s CauBay river and their impact on agricultural soil and human health. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 24: 301-306.

42. Tran, T.A.M., Leermakers, M., Hoang, T.L., Nguyen, V.H., 2018. Metals and arsenic in sediment and fish from Cau Hai lagoon inVietnam: Ecological and human health risks. Chemosphere, 210: 175-182.

43. Trinh, T.T., Hoang, Q.A., Le, T.T., Vi, M.L., Nghiem, X.T., Nguyen, T.H.Y., Nguyen, L.A., Tran, M.T., Tu, B.M., 2019. Distributions and seasonal variations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in surface sediment from coastal areas of central Vietnam Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44: 28-35.

44. Truong, V.D., Vu, N.U., Nguyen, T.L., Mac, N.B., 2018. Zoning aquaculture water quality in Cau Hai lagoon, Thua Thien - Hue province. Journal of Science- Can Tho Univeristy, 54 (6B): 120-128.

45. Unyimadu, J.P., Osibanjo, O., Babayemi, J.O., 2018. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in River Niger, Nigeria: Occurrence, distribution and composition profiles. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 34 (1): 54-67.

46. Unyimadu, J.P., Osibanjo, O., Babayemi, J.O., 2019. Concentration and Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in Sediments of the Niger River, Nigeria. Journal of Health and Pollution, 9 (22): 190606.

47. Wang, H., He, M., Lin, C., Quan, X., Guo, W., Yang, Z., 2007. Monitoring and assessment of persistent organochlorine residues in sediments from Daliaohe River watershed, northeast of China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 133 (1-3): 231-242

48. Wang, D., Yang, S., Wang, G., Gao, L., Wang, Y., Jiang, Q., Chen, Y., 2016. Residues and Distributions of Organochlorine Pesticides in China’s Weihe River. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 25: 1285-1292.

49. Xue, N., Zhang, D., Xu, X., 2006. Organochlorinated pesticide multiresidues in surface sediments from Beijing Guanting reservoir. Water Research, 40 (2): 183-94.

50. Yun, X., Yang, Y., Liu, M., Wang, J., 2014. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments from the East Lake, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21: 10368-10376.