1 Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology;

2 Viet Nam Institute fot Tropical Technology and Environmental Protection;

3 Leeds Beckett University;

*Corresponding author:; Tel.: +84–908226432


The residual antibiotics in the environment have lately caused widespread concerns. However, little information is available on antibiotic pollution and its ecological risk to water resources of Saigon river. Therefore, an investigation of the occurrence and ecological risk of antibiotics in the Saigon river was necessary. Determination of antibiotics was analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass (LC/MS/MS) and ecological risk assessment of antibiotics was used risk quotient (RQ) methods. Results revealed that the antibiotics concentrations total in water ranged from not determined (ND) to 697.3 ng/L in rainy season and to 869.3 ng/L in the dry season respectively. The ecological risk assessment via the risk quotient (RQ) of Quinolone class (Ciprofloxacin, Enrofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Ofloxacin) in areas affected by livestock, urban living and aquaculture activities were recorded to be higher than 1, indicating that Quinolone class has remained at high risk in the Saigon River. The RQ of Ciprofloxacin in the source area, in particular, has reflected a medium–risk level compared to other antibiotics in the Saigon River's low–risk category. The research findings have revealed the significance and necessity of protecting the Saigon River water from contamination by antibiotics for domestic water supplies and aquaculture.


Cite this paper

Bao, N.P.; Nhat, P.H.; Tuc, D.Q.; Hien, N.T.M. Occurrence and ecological risk assessment of antibiotics in water of Saigon River. VN J. Hydrometetol. 2022, 12, 57-66. 


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