1 Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City
*Corresponding author: email@example.com; Tel.: +84–918017376
In recent years, the socio-economic development of two districts of Cam Lam and Cam Ranh city of Khanh Hoa province has taken place strongly. This process has affected the environment of Thuy Trieu lagoon (TTL), leading to the need to assess the lagoon water environmental carrying capacity (LECC). Based on survey data in the years 2019–2021, this study has the objective of assessing the environmental capacity of the Thuy Trieu lagoon. Three substances are selected: Ammonia, Phosphate, and Nitrate. In this study, we use a MIKE 3 model with a Hydrodynamic module (HD) combined with a 3D numerical lab for ecological modeling (ECOLab), then extract the results and calculate the environmental carrying capacity load for the Thuy Trieu lagoon in the wet and dry seasons. The results showed that in the dry season, the residual carrying capacity of the water body LECCRM of substances such as Ammonia is 104.81 tons/month, Phosphate 193.18 tons/month, and Nitrate 2,294.91 tons/month. During the wet season, the LECCRM capacity in the water body also increased compared to the dry season with the LECCRM values of the following substances: Ammonium 165.33 tons/month, Phosphate 311.41 tons/month, and Nitrate 3,629.60 tons/month. This result complements the results already done, helping to have a more scientific basis for lagoon management and planning.
Cite this paper
Hanh, P.T.H.; Diem, T.T.L.H.; Long, B.T. Assessment of water environmental carrying capacity of Thuy Trieu lagoon, Cam Ranh, Khanh Hoa. VN J. Hydrometeorol. 2022, 13, 37-53.
1. Tran, D.T. Classification and general features of coastal bays in Vietnam. Vietnam J. Mar. Sci. Technol. 2006, 6(2), 38–51.
2. GESAMP. Environmental Capacity – An approach to marine pollution prevention, Rep. Study GESAMP 1986, 30(80), 49.
3. Luu, V.D. Environmental capacity of typical water bodies along Vietnam’s coast. Publishing house for natural sciences and technology, 2016, pp. 356.
4. Li, K.; Zhang, L.; Li, Y.; Zhang, L.; Wang, X. A three-dimensional water quality model to evaluate the environmental capacity of nitrogen and phosphorus in Jiaozhou Bay, China. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2015, 91(1), 306–316.
5. Islam, M.S.; Tanaka, M. Impacts of pollution on coastal and marine ecosystems including coastal and marine fisheries and approach for management: A review and synthesis. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2004, 48(7–8), 624–649.
6. Borja, Á.; Elliott, M.; Carstensen, J.; Heiskanen, A.S.; Van de Bund, W. Marine management – Towards an integrated implementation of the European marine strategy framework and the water framework directives. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2010, 60(12), 2175–2186.
7. Han, H.; Li, K.; Wang, X.; Shi, X.; Qiao, X.; Liu, J. Environmental capacity of nitrogen and phosphorus pollutions in Jiaozhou Bay, China: Modeling and assessing. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2011, 63(5–12), 262–266.
8. Linker, L.C.; Batiuk, R.A.; Shenk, G.W.; Cerco, C.F. Development of the Chesapeake Bay watershed total maximum daily load allocation. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 2013, 49(5), 986–1006.
9. Lung, W.S. Water Quality Modeling for Wasteload Allocations and TMDLs. Wiley, New York, 2001.
10. Nobre, A.M. et al. Assessment of coastal management options by means of multilayered ecosystem models. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 2010, 87(1), 43–62.
11. Jickells, T.D. Nutrient Biogeochemistry of the Coastal Zone. Science 1998, 281, 217–222.
12. Syvitski, J.P.M.; Kettner, A.J.; Green, P. Impact of Humans on the Flux of Terrestrial Sediment to the Global Coastal Ocean. Science 2005, 308(2005), 376–380.
13. Smith, S.V.; Swaney, D.P.; Talaue-mcmanus, L. Carbon – Nitrogen – Phosphorus Fluxes in the Coastal Zone : The LOICZ Approach to Global Assessment. Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in Continental Margins, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2010, 575–586.
14. Pravdlc, V. The scientific basis of marine pollution prevention strategies. Chem. Ecol. 1995, 10(1–2), 25–31.
15. Williams, C. Combatting marine pollution from land-based activities: Australian initiatives. Ocean Coast. Manag. 1996, 33(1–3), 87–112.
16. Jarvie, H.P.; Neal, C.; Tappin, A.D. European land-based pollutant loads to the North Sea: An analysis of the Paris Commission data and review of monitoring strategies. Sci. Total Environ. 1997, 194–195, 39–58.
17. Tuncer, G. et al. Land-based sources of pollution along the Black Sea coast of Turkey: Concentrations and annual loads to the Black Sea. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 1998, 36(6), 409–423.
18. Vo, D.S.; Nguyen, T.A. Assessment of environmental capacity of Thuy Trieu – Cam Ranh waters. Vietnam J. Mar. Sci. Technol. 2001, 1(4), 4–20.
19. Thu, P.M.; Huan, N.H.; Long, B.H. Assessment of Environmental Capacity of Thuy Trieu – Cam Ranh Waters. Vietnam J. Mar. Sci. Technol. 2013, 13(4), 371–381.
20. Long B.T.; Khanh, H.T.P.; Thuy, V.T.A. Environmental capacity assessment for Amoni and TSS in Dung Quat bay, Viet Nam. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. (EES). 2019, 344, 1–8.
21. Bui, L.T.; Tran, D.L.T. Assessing marine environmental carrying capacity in semi-enclosed coastal areas – Models and related databases. Sci. Total Environ. 2022, 838, 156043.
22. DHI. MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 flow model FM, Hydrodynamic and Transport Module, Scientific Documentation, 2018.
23. DHI. MIKE 21 - Spectral Wave Module - Scientific Document, 2007.
24. DHI. MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 flow model FM, Mud Transport Module Scientific Documentation, 2012.
25. DHI. MIKE 21/3 coupled model FM, User guide, 2009.
26. Gordon, D.C., Boudreau, Jr.P.R., Mann, K.H., Ong, J.E., Silvert, W.L., Smith, S.V., Wattayakorn, F.W.A.T.Y. LOICZ BIOGEOCHEMICAL Modelling Guidelines, 1996.
27. Kiwango, H.; Njau, K.N.; Wolanski, E. The application of nutrient budget models to determine the ecosystem health of the Wami Estuary, Tanzania. Ecohydrol. Hydrobiol. 2018, 18(2), 107–119.