1 Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Vietnam Cooperative Alliance;

2 ROOM strong research, Environmental and life science research laboratory, Thuyloi University;;

3 Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology;;

*Corresponding author:;; Tel.: +84–914953335


In this study, sixteen air samples from two small-scale household waste incinerators in Hai Hau district, Nam Dinh province, Vietnam, were collected and investigated for some pollutants such as SO2, NO2, CO, H2S, and BTEX. The results showed that the concentration of SO2, NO2, CO, and H2S were correspondingly in the range of 351.1 -450.0, 30300-36600, 200.7-212.0, and 78.9-100.1 µg/m3. In addition, the BETX concentration ranged from 5.16 to 20.7 µg/m3 for Benzen, from 21.63 to 120.66 µg/m3 for Toluen, from 3.13 to 12.57 µg/m3 for (m, p)-Xylene, and from 1.58 to 7.73 µg/m3 for o-xylene. All the values of SO2, NO2, CO, and H2S concentration were higher than standard concentrations in QCVN 05: 2013/BTNMT, however, the BETX concentration was lower than the standards in QCVN 06:2009/BTNMT. 


Cite this paper

Dung, N.T.; Toan, V.D.; Mai, N.T.; Anh, N.N. Assessing the level of air pollution at some small-scale household waste incinerators in Hai Hau district, Nam Dinh province. J. Hydro-Meteorol. 2023, 17, 77-84.


1. Eurostat, S.E. Waste statistics. 2018.

2. EC. Living Well, Within the Limits of Our Planet. Prcoceeding of the 7th EAP–The New General Union Environment Action Programme to 2020, 2013.

3. Jose L. Domingo, Montse Marquès, Montse Mari, Marta Schuhmacher. Adverse health effects for populations living near waste incinerators with special attention to hazardous waste incinerators. A review of the scientific literature. Environ. Res. 2020, 187, 109631.

4. Cangialosi, F.; Intini, G.; Liberti, L.; Notarnicola, M.; Stellacci, P. Health risk assessment of air emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant–a case study. Waste Manag. 2008, 28(5), 885–895.

5. Elliott, P.;  Shaddick, G.;  Kleinschmidt, I.;  Jolley, D.;  Walls, P.;  Beresford, J.; Grund, Y.C. Cancer incidence near municipal solid waste incinerators in Great Britain. Br. J. Cancer. 1996, 73(5), 702–710.

6. Dugas, T.R.; Lomnicki, S.; Cormier, S.A.; Dellinger, B.; Reams, M. Addressing emerging risks: scientific and regulatory challenges associated with environmentally persistent free radicals. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2016, 13, 573.

7. Bai, Y.; Guo, W.; Wang, X.; Pan, H.; Zhao, Q.; Wang, D. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash with red mud-carbide slag for eco-friendly geopolymer preparation. J. Clean. Prod. 2022, 340, 130820.

8. Yu, J.; Li, H.; Liu, Y.; Wang, C. PCDD/Fs in indoor environments of residential communities around a municipal solid waste incineration plant in East China: Occurrence, sources, and cancer risks. Environ. Int. 2023, 174, 107902.

9. Chengyi, S.; Zhiping, W., Yong, Y.; Minya, W.; Xianglong, J.; Guoao, L.; Jing, Y.; Liyun, Z.; Lei, N.; Yiqi, W.; Yuxi, Z.; Yang, L. Characteristic, secondary transformation and odor activity evaluation of VOCs emitted from municipal solid waste incineration power plant. J. Environ. Manage. 2023, 326, 116703.

10. Liu, S.L.; Wang,  B.G.;  He, J.; Tang, X.D.; Luo,  W.; Wang, C. Source fingerprints of volatile organic compounds emitted from A municipal solid waste incineration power plant in Guangzhou, China. Procedia Environ. Sci. 2012, 12, 106–115.

11. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, National environmental status report on domestic solid waste incinerator.

12. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. QCVN 61: 2016/BTNMT: National technical regulation on domestic solid waste incinerator.

13. Huong, P.T.M., Tung, N.Q.; Ngan, N.H.; Van, D.T.C; Huy, H.V.; Yen, P.T.T. Study on the treatment process of air pollution and ash from the solid waste incinerator. J. Sci. Technol. 2020, 56, 120–124.

14. People’s Committee of Nam Dinh province. Project on management and treatment of household waste in Nam Dinh province for the period of 2020 - 2025.

15. Circular No. 10/2021/TT–BTNMT on technical regulations for environmental monitoring and management of information and data for environmental quality monitoring.

16. TCVN 5971:1995 - Ambient air - Determination of the mass concentration of sulfur dioxide - Tetrachloromercurate (TCM) pararosaniline method.

17. TCVN 6137:2009 - Ambient air - Determination of mass concentration of nitrogen dioxide - Modified Griess- Saltzman method.

18. Industry standard 52TCN 352:1989 on Carbon Oxides.

19. Standard MASA-701 - Method for sampling H2S gas.

20. TCVN 5067-1995: Air quality - Weighing method for determination of dust content.

21. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), Fourth Edition “Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Method 1501, Issue 3, dated 15 March 2003”.

22. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. QCVN 05: 2013/BTNMT: National technical regulation on ambient air quality.

23. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. QCVN 06:2009/BTNMT- National technical regulation on some toxic substances in ambient air - QCVN 06:2009/BTNMT, 2009.

24. Puttaswamy, N.; Natarajan, S.; Saidam, S.R.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Sadasivam, S.; Sambandam, S.; Balakrishnan, K. Evaluation of health risks associated with exposure to volatile organic compounds from household fuel combustion in southern India. Environ. Adv. 2021, 4, 100043.

25. Truc, V.T.Q.; Oanh, N.T.K. Roadside BTEX and other gaseous air pollutants in relation to emission sources. Atmos. Environ. 2007, 41, 7685–7697.

26. Raysoni, A.U.; Stock, T.H.; Sarnat, J.A.; Chavez, M.C.; Sarnat, S.E.; Montoya, T.; Holguin, F.; Li, W. Evaluation of VOC concentrations in indoor and outdoor microenvironments at near-road schools. Environ. Pollut. 2017, 231, 681–693.

27. Miller, L.;  Xu, X.; Wheeler, A.; Zhang, T.; Hamadani, M.; Ejaz, U. Evaluation of missing value methods for predicting ambient BTEX concentrations in two neighbouring cities in Southwestern Ontario Canada. Atmos. Environ. 2018, 181, 126–134.