1Vietnam Journal of Hydrometeorology, Vietnam Meteorological and Hydrological Administration, Hanoi, Vietnam.


An ecosystem model was developed for sizestructured phytoplankton dynamics of coastal bay. State variables of the model include major inorganic nutrients (NO2 - +NO3 - , NH4 +, PO4 3- , Si), size classes of phytoplankton (microphytoplankton (>20µm), nanophytoplankton (<20µm), two classes of zooplankton (mesozooplankton, microzooplankton), and organic matters (POC, DOC). The iconographic interface of STELLA model was used to facilitate construction of the dynamic ecosystem model. The ecosystem model was integrated with STELLA 7.0 using a 4th order Runge-Kutta method (a numerical variable time step). The developed method suggested that the dynamical model using STELLA software can be useful to study phytoplankton dynamics in the pelagic coastal ecosystem. Keywords: Ecosystem model, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, STELLA.


Cite this paper

Bach Quang Dung (2019), Dynamical Estuarine Ecosystem modeling of Phytoplankton Size Structure Using Stella. Vietnam Journal of Hydrometeorology, 02, 35-44.


1. Allen, J.I., Smyth, T.J., Siddorn, J.R., Holt, M., 2008. How well can we forecast high biomass algal bloom events in a eutrophic coastal sea? Harmful Algae, 8 (1): 70-76.

2. Angelini, R., Petrere, M., 2000. A model for the plankton system of the Broa reservoir, São Carlos, Brazil. Ecological Modelling, 126 (2-3): 131-137.

3. Anderson, J.T., 1998. The effect of seasonal variability on the germination and vertical transport of a cyst forming dinoflagellate, Gyrodinium sp., in the Chesapeake Bay. Ecological Modelling,112 (2-3): 85-109.

4. Andersson, A., Haecky, P., Hagström, Å., 1994. Effect of temperature and light on the growth of micro- nano- and pico-plankton: impact on algal succession. Marine Biology,120 (4): 511-520.

5. Blackford, J.C., Allen, J.I., Gilbert, F.J., 2004. Ecosystem dynamics at six contrasting sites: a generic modelling study. Journal of Marine Systems, 52 (1-4): 191-215.

6. Costanza, R., Duplisea, D., Kautsky, U., 1998. Ecological Modelling on modelling ecological and economic systems with STELLA. Ecological Modelling, 110: 1-4.

7. Costanza, R., Gottlieb, S., 1998. Modelling ecological and economic systems with STELLA: Part II. Ecological Modelling, 112 (2-3): 81-84.

8. Costanza, R., Voinov, A., 2001. Modeling ecological and economic systems with STELLA: Part III. Ecological Modelling, 143 (1-2): 1-7.

9. Chen, B., Liu, H., Wang, Z., 2008. Trophic interactions within the microbial food web in the South China Sea revealed by size-fractionation method. Journal of Experimental Marine Biol-ogy and Ecology, 368 (1): 59-66.

10. Dominic, M.D.T., Donald, J.O., Robert, V.T., 1971. A Dynamic Model of the Phytoplankton Population in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Nonequilibrium Systems in Natural Water Chemistry, Chapter 5, 131-180.

11. Dube, A., Jayaraman, G., 2008. Mathematical modelling of the seasonal variability of plankton in a shallow lagoon. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications, 69 (3): 850-865.

12. Flynn, K.J., 2005. Modelling marine phytoplankton growth under eutrophic conditions. Journal of Sea Research, 54 (1): 92-103.

13. Garcia, V.M.T., Garcia, C.A.E., Mata, M.M., Pollery, R.C., Piola, A.R., Signorini, S.R., McClain, C.R., Iglesias-Rodriguez, M.D., 2008. Environmental factors controlling the phytoplankton blooms at the Patagonia shelf-break in spring. Deep Sea Research Part I, 55 (9): 1150- 1166.

14. Hansen, J.L.S., Josefson, A.B., 2003. Accumulation of algal pigments and live planktonic diatoms in aphotic sediments during the spring bloom in the transition zone of the North and Baltic seas. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 248: 41-54.

15. Ishikawa, A., Furuya, K., 2004. The role of diatom resting stages in the onset of the spring bloom in the East China Sea. Marine Biology, 145 (3): 633-639.

16. Jaworski, N.C., Lear, D.W., Villa, O.J., 1972. Nutrient management in the Potomac Estuary, Nutrients and eutrophication, Specific Symposium American Society Limnology and Oceanography, 1: 246-367.

17. Kim, H.C., Yoo, S., Oh, I.S., 2007. Relationship between phytoplankton bloom and wind stress in the sub-polar frontal area of the Japan/East Sea. Journal of Marine Systems, 67 (3-4): 205-216.

18. Kriest, I., Oschlies, A., 2007. Modelling the effect of cell-size-dependent nutrient uptake and exudation on phytoplankton size spectra. Deep Sea Research Part I, 54 (9): 1593-1618.

19. Lee, D.I., Choi, J.M., Lee, Y.G., Lee, M.O., Lee, W.C., Kim, J.K., 2008. Coastal environmental assessment and management by ecological simulation in Yeoja Bay, Korea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 80 (4): 495- 508.

20. Marquis, E., Niquil, N., Delmas, D., Hartmann, H. J., Bonnet, D., Carlotti, F., Herbland, A., Labry, C., Sautour, B., Laborde, P., Vézina, A., Dupuy, C., 2007. Inverse analysis of the planktonic food web dynamics related to phytoplankton bloom development on the continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay, French coast. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 73 (1-2): 223- 235.

21. Moloney, C.L., Field, J.G., 1991. The size-based dynamics of plankton food webs. I. A simulation model of carbon and nitrogen flows. Journal of Plankton Research, 13 (5): 1003- 1038.

22. Pannard, A., Claquin, P., Klein, C., Roy, B.L., Véron, B., 2008. Short-term variability of the phytoplankton community in coastal ecosystem in response to physical and chemical conditions’ changes. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 80 (2): 212-224.

23. Rogachev, K.A., Carmack, E.C., Foreman, M.G.G., 2008. Bowhead whales feed on plankton concentrated by estuarine and tidal currents in Academy Bay, Sea of Okhotsk. Continental Shelf Research, 28 (14): 1811-1826.

24. Shikata, T., Nagasoe, S., Matsubara, T., Yoshikawa, S., Yoshikawa, Y., Shimasaki, Y., Oshima, Y., Jenkinson, I.R., Honjo, T., 2008. Factors influencing the initiation of blooms of the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo and the diatom Skeletonema costatum in a port in Japan. Limnology and Oceanography, 53 (6): 2503- 2518.

25. Sin, Y., Wetzel, R.L., 2002. Ecosystem modeling analysis of size-structured phytoplankton dynamics in the York River estuary, Virginia (USA). I. Development of a plankton ecosystem model with explicit feedback controls and hydrodynamics. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 228: 75-90.

26. Vallières, C., Retamal, L., Ramlal, P., Osburn, C. L., Vincent, W.F., 2008. Bacterial production and microbial food web structure in a large Arctic river and the coastal Arctic Ocean. Journal of Marine Systems, 74 (3-4): 756-773.

27. Varela, M.M., Bode, A., Fernández, E., Gónzalez, N., Kitidis, V., Varela, M., Woodward, E.M.S., 2005. Nitrogen uptake and dissolved organic nitrogen release in planktonic communities characterised by phytoplankton size–structure in the Central Atlantic Ocean. Deep Sea Research Part I, 52 (9): 1637-1661.

28. Weston, K., Greenwood, N., Fernand, L., Pearce, D.J., Sivyer, D.B., 2008. Environmental controls on phytoplankton community composition in the Thames plume, U.K.. Journal of Sea Research, 60 (4): 246-254.

29. Wilkerson, F.P., Lassiter, A.M., Dugdale, R.C., Marchi, A., Hogue, V.E., 2006. The phytoplankton bloom response to wind events and upwelled nutrients during the CoOP WEST study. Deep Sea Research Part II, 53 (25-26): 3023-3048.