1Viet Nam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Viet Nam;;

2Department of Climate Change, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Viet Nam;;;


Responding to climate change at the local level plays an important role in building resilience and supporting the implementation of the National Climate Change Plan. Due to its geopolitical characteristics, Vietnamese provinces developed their own climate change action plans, taking the climate change impacts on that province, its financial capacity, and the homogeneity of the provincial plan with the national action plan into consideration. Currently, in the world, there are very few studies on assessing the implementation of climate policies at the local level as well as their effects on the national climate policies. From that perspective, this paper aims to fulfill that existing gap by assessing Viet Nam’s city/provincial efforts on climate change response and their contribution to the national goals. The assessment applied both top–down and bottom–up approaches which is a combination of the review of legal documents and results of the implementation of 63 cities/provincial climate change action plans (PAPCs) and their relevance to the national goals. The study uses information from the PAPCs of 63 provinces/cities in Viet Nam to analyze their goals, content, and results to achieve the goals as set out in the National Strategy on Climate Change. On that basis, it was shown that in the coming time, it is necessary to further strengthen the coherence during the development process of central, ministerial, and local action plans in order to achieve the national goals to respond to climate change, contributing to the implementation of the Paris Agreement on climate change.


Cite this paper

Huong, H.T.L.; Quang, V.D.D.; Nga, T.T.T. Responding to Climate Change at Provincial Level in Viet Nam. VN J. Hydrometeorol. 2020, 6, 11-25. 










1. UNFCCC. What Is the Paris Agreement?, 2015.–and–meetings/the–paris–agreement/what–is–the–paris–agreement.

2. Reckien, D.; Salvia, M.; Heidrich, O.; Church, J.M.; Pietrapertosa, F.; De Gregorio-Hurtado, S.; D’Alonzo, V.; Foley, A.; Simoes, S.G.; Lorencová, E.K.; Orru, H.; Orru, K.; Wejs, A.; Flacke, J.; Olazabal, M.; Geneletti, D.; Feliu, E.; Vasilie, S.; Nador, C.; Krook-Riekkola, A.; Matosović, M.; Fokaides, P.A.; Ioannou, B.I.; Flamos, A.; Spyridaki, N.A.; Balzan, M.V.; Fülöp, O.; Paspaldzhiev, I.; Grafakos, S.; Dawson, R. How Are Cities Planning to Respond to Climate Change? Assessment of Local Climate Plans from 885 Cities in the EU–28. J. Cleaner Prod. 2018, 191, 207–219.

3. Kousky, C.; Schneider, S.H. Global Climate Policy: Will Cities Lead the Way? Clim. Pol. 2003, 3, 359–372.

4. Rosenzweig, C.; Solecki, W.; Hammer, S.A.; Mehrotra, S. Cities Lead the Way in Climate–Change Action. Nature 2010, 467, 909–911.

5. Castán, V. Broto. Urban Governance and the Politics of Climate Change. World Dev. 2017, 93, 1–15.

6. De Gregorio Hurtado, S.; Olazabal, M.; Monica Salvia, M.; Filomena Pietrapertosa, F.; Eduardo Olazabal, E.; Geneletti, D.; D?Alonzo, V.; Feliú, E.; Di Leo, S.; Reckien, D. Implications of governance structures on urban climate action: evidence from Italy and Spain. Working Papers 2014–02, BC3, 2014, pp. 47.

7. De Gregorio Hurtado, S.; Olazabal, M.; Salvia, M.; Pietrapertosa, F.; Olazabal, E.; Geneletti, D.; D’Alonzo, V.; Di Leo, S.; Reckien, D. Understanding How and Why Cities Engage with Climate Policy: An Analysis of Local Climate Action in Spain and Italy. TeMA – J. Land Use Mobility Environ. 2015, 23–46.

8. Kelemen, R.D. Globalizing European Union Environmental Policy. J. Eur. Publ. Pol. 2010, 17, 335–349.

9. Heidrich, O.; Reckien, D.; Olazabal, M.; Foley, A.; Salvia, M.; Hurtado, S.D.G.; Orru, H. et al. National Climate Policies across Europe and Their Impacts on Cities Strategies. J. Environ. Manag. 2016, 168, 36–45.

10. Seto, K.C.; Dhakal, S.; Bigio, A.; Blanco, H.; Delgado, G.C.; Dewar, D.; Huang, L.; Inaba, A. et al. Chapter 12 – Human Settlements, Infrastructure and Spatial Planning. In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. IPCC Working Group III Contribution to AR5. Cambridge University Press, 2014.

11. OECD. Cities, Climate Change and Multilevel Governance, 2009.

12. Tang, Z.; Brody, S.D.; Quinn, C.; Chang, L.; Wei, T. Moving from Agenda to Action: Evaluating Local Climate Change Action Plans. J. Environ. Plann. Manage. 2010, 53, 41–62.

13. Government of Viet Nam. National Strategy on Climate Change, 2007.

14. Prime Minister of Vietnam. Decision No. 2053/QD–Ttg, October 28, 2016, on issuing the plan for the implementation of paris agreement on climate change, 2016.

15. Viet Nam. Nationally Determined Contribution of Viet Nam, 2020.

16. Viet Nam. The third national communication of Vietnam to UNFCCC, 2019.

17. ADB. Report and Recommendation of the President to the Board of Directors. No. October, 2009.

18. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. Final Report of the Developing National Adaptation Plan, 2019.

19. Provincial People’s Committee of Viet Nam. Action Plan for 63 Provinces and Cities.

20. Viet Nam Prime Minister. National Action Plan to Respond to Climate Change, 2012.

21. UNDP. Viet Nam and Climate Change: A Discussion Paper on Policies for Sustainable Human Development, 2009.

22. General Statistics Office. Statistical Yearbook. Statistical publisher, 2018.

23. Central Steering Committee for Disaster Prevention. Annual Report of Natural Disaster Prevention in Viet Nam, 2018.

24. Viet Nam. Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of Viet Nam, 2016.